Tutorial T3 : lmplementation of long AC and EHV cable systems
by Volker Werle
The difficulties in installing new overhead lines are making it essential to consider the use of longer underground cable links, as demonstrated by the increasing numbers of long AC cable projects. At the same time, the development of off-shore facilities has created a demand for long submarine cables. There are still however technical challenges to consider whilst planning such cable installations.
This tutorial covers the practical issues relating to the system design, installation and monitoring of long HVAC Cables. Focus is made on the current state of development (SCFF cable vs XLPE cable, surge arrestors, reactive compensation, reliability of supply), challenges for implementation (hybrid circuits, EMF control), system design (reactive compensation, losses, sheath bonding), installation (construction, horizontal directional drilling, right of way), monitoring (temperature, route condition) and maintenance (fault location, route information).
Tutorial T4 : The use of DTS and RTTR, optical fibers, user interface, SCADA, case studies
By SMIT Jacco
At present, due to more uncertainty in the energy market and increasing loads in the power grids, a real-time thermal rating (RTTR) system and other measurement techniques aid the asset manager in making optimal decisions in operational and planning investments. Based on measurements, a grid operator can decide if a hotspot in network should be removed to increase the capacity or if the hotspot should be managed with a RTTR system. This enables the operator to understand the load and overload possibilities in real time and into the near future (few hours or days).
The currently predominant technology for thermal measurement on power cables is DTS (Distributed Temperature Sensing) often used in combination with a RTTR system.
The tutorial covers the following topics:
- Where and why DTS and RTTR ?
- In-depth explanation of DTS and RTTR
- Optical fiber types and position
- Calibration and testing
- Aging and maintenance aspects
- IT and SCADA
- Literature survey
- Case studies
Tutorial T5 : Fault location on land and submarine cable links (AC & DC)
By DONAGHY Robert
The increasing number of land and submarine cable assets globally has created a focus on cable fault location capabilities. All faults in cable systems are different and cable fault location depends to a great extent on applying the appropriate technique or combination of techniques. Guidance is therefore required for engineers on the correct application of the various techniques available.
This tutorial covers the main issues to be studied in fault location of AC and DC land and submarine cables. It provides an overview of the various cable fault types that commonly occur, and a description of the main cable fault location techniques that can be applied. Design factors in cable systems that can help or hinder fault location are also discussed.
Aspects of emergency planning relevant to fault location for land and submarine cables are considered. Some of the innovative methods and alternatives to conventional fault location techniques are described. A focus is also made on the safety and training considerations. Finally, a few case studies covering various real scenarios for fault location on land and submarine cables are presented.